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(MED175 & 225) Pharmacology I & II for the Medical Assistant


Action- The process of exerting a force or bringing about an effect that results from the inherent capacity of an agent. 

Analgesic- Insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness. 

Antagonism- Interaction of two or more substances such that the action of any one of them on living cells or tissues is lessened (as by interference with the uptake or by an opposing physiological reaction).

Anti-inflammatory- Reducing or counteracting inflammation.

Antioxidant- Any of various substances that inhibit oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen and peroxides and that include many held to protect the living body from the deleterious effects of free radicals. 

Antipyretic- Preventing, removing, or allaying fever.

Biotransformation- The transformation of chemical compounds in a living system.

Buccal- Of, relating to, near, involving, or supplying a cheek. 

Carbohydrate - Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen most of with are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods.

Dietary Supplement - A product taken orally that contains one or more ingredients that are intended to supplement one's diet and are not considered food.  

Drug-  A substance used as a medication or in the preparation of medication.

Electrolyte- Any of the ions (as of sodium, potassium, calcium, or bicarbonate) that in a biological fluid regulate or affect most metabolic processes (as the flow of nutrients into  and waste products out of cells).

Enzyme- Any of numerous complex proteins that are produced by living cells and catalyze specific biochemical reactions at body temperatures. 

Generic- Common or descriptive and not entitled to trademark protection.

Indication- A symptom or particular circumstance that indicates the advisability or necessity of a specific medical treatment or procedure. 

Metabolism- The chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material  is assimilated.

Mineral- A solid homogeneous crystalline chemical or compound that results from the inorganic processes of nature.

Paradoxical- Not being the normal or usual kind. 

Pharmacogenomics- The science concerned with understanding how genetic differences among individuals cause varied responses to the same drug and with developing drug therapies to compensate for these differences. 

Pharmacokinetics- The characteristic interactions of a drug and the body in terms of its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. 

Pharmacology-  The science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, and toxicology. Also, the properties and reactions of drugs especially wit relation to their therapeutic value. 

Protein- Any various naturally occurring extremely complex substances that consist of amino-acid residues joining by peptide bonds, contain the elements carbons, hydrogen, nitrogen oxygen, usually sulfur, and occasionally other elements, and include many essential biological compounds.

Side Effect- A secondary and usually adverse effect. 

Sublingual- Situated or administered under the tongue. 

Synergism- Interaction of discrete agents (as drugs) such that the total effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects.

Teratogenic- Of, relating to, or causing developmental malformations.

Transcutaneous- Passing, entering, or made by penetration through the skin.

Vitamin- Any of various organic substances that are essential in minute quantities to the nutrition of most animals and some plants, act especially as coenzymes and precursors of coenzymes in the regulation of metabolic processes but do not provide energy or serve as building units, and are present in natural foodstuffs or are sometimes produced within the body. 

(All terms are from Merriam Webster)